Remove the giblets and neck from the cavity of the bird. Discard the liver, but reserve the gizzards and neck. Trim the neck flap, tail, and inside cavity of excess fat. Reserve the fat for rendering, and use the Red Wine Spiced Cabbage, if desired (see note). Cut the wing tips at the joint and reserve the tips for a goose broth. With a boning or paring knife remove the wishbone by cutting underneath both sides of the bone to free it from the flesh. Cut through the bottom of the wishbone where it meets the neck, and then pull until it comes free.
In a pot, make a goose broth by simmering the gizzards, neck, wing tips, and wishbone in the beef broth for 1 1/2 hours. Strain into a saucepan and reserve for making the gravy.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Mix the onion, apple, and orange together in a bowl with the thyme, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and 1/8 teaspoon pepper. Stuff the goose with this mixture, and sew the cavity shut with kitchen string. Tie the legs of the bird together. Prick the skin all over with a fork and rub with 1 1/2 teaspoons salt.
Heat a large roasting pan on top of the stove and add the oil. Carefully sear the goose on each side of the breast and the back for 3 to 4 minutes or until lightly browned. Transfer the bird to a plate and pour off the excess fat from the pan. Add 1/2 inch of water and return the goose to the pan, laying it on one side. Place the pan in the oven and roast for 45 minutes. Check the bird while it is roasting to make sure the water doesn't evaporate, or the goose fat will burn. Carefully pour off the excess fat. Prick the goose with the fork again, rotate the bird to the other side, add 1/2 inch of water to the pan, and continue to roast for another 45 minutes. Pour off the excess fat, turn the goose so the breast is up, add 1/2 inch of water to the pan, and continue to roast for another hour.
When the bird is done, the juices will run clear from the breast and the thigh will move easily in its joint. To brown the skin of the bird, raise the heat to 500 degrees F. and cook for 10 to 12 minutes. Remove the bird from the oven and let it rest in a warm spot for 20 minutes while you make the gravy.
To make the gravy, discard all the excess fat from the roasting pan. Put the roasting pan over a medium flame and pour the wine into the pan. With a wooden spoon scrape up all the browned bits from the pan and cook the wine to reduce by about half. Add the wine and pan juices to the goose broth, and bring to simmer. To thicken the sauce, whisk the disolved arrowroot into the sauce and bring it to a boil. Season with the remaining salt and pepper.
To serve the goose, discard the stuffing, which is used only to perfume the bird during roasting. Carve the breast, leg, and thigh into thin slices. Arrange on a warmed platter and serve with the gravy.
NOTE To render goose fat, place the goose fat in a heavy-bottomed pan with about 3/4 to 1 cup water. Bring to a low simmer and cook slowly to evaporate the water and extract the fat. The key to rendering is to moderate the heat so the fat doesn't brown. When the fat is rendered, all the water should be evaporated, all the fat will be liquid, and any skin will have cooked down to small pieces. If desired, separate the fat from the skin and chill the fat for future use.