For the spice paste, place the shallots, garlic, ginger, galangal and chillies into a blender. Add the palm sugar, peanut oil (or groundnut oil) and fish sauce and blend to a fine paste.
Put one tablespoon of the paste aside for the dressing.
For the lamb, rub the remainder of the spice paste over the lamb loins, place into a dish and cover with cling film.
Set the lamb aside for a few hours or overnight to marinate - you should place the meat in the fridge if you plan to leave it overnight, bringing it back out about half an hour before serving (to return it to room temperature).
For the dressing, heat a frying pan over a medium heat and add the peanut oil.
Add the set-aside tablespoon of paste to the pan and fry until it begins to colour and dry out (about ten minutes).
Place the cooked paste in a bowl and add the lime juice, fish sauce and chopped palm sugar. Stir to combine and set aside.
Preheat the oven to 200C/390F/Gas 6.
For the salad, place the rice vermicelli in a large bowl and cover with boiling water. Leave until soft (about 30 minutes).
Meanwhile, heat the vegetable oil in a frying pan over a high heat.
Add the lamb loins and sear for two minutes on each side.
Place the seared lamb onto a baking sheet and roast in the oven for about 3-4 minutes. Remove from the oven and set aside in a warm place to rest.
For the fried garlic, heat the peanut oil in a deep pan over a medium heat (CAUTION: hot oil can be dangerous - do not leave unattended.)
When the oil is hot, add the garlic and fry for five minutes or until golden-brown (take care not to overcook as they will taste bitter). Remove with a slotted spoon and drain the garlic on kitchen paper. Set aside.
To finish the salad, place the chillies, shallots and lime leaves into a bowl.
Slice the lamb loins into thin slices and add to the other salad ingredients.
Sprinkle over a little of the dressing and mix to combine.
Drain the vermicelli and add it to the salad, along with the coriander and basil leaves. Mix again, adding more dressing if necessary.
To serve, divide the salad between four plates and garnish with the fried garlic.